Shorea maxwelliana King
Bangkirai (Indonesia); Selangan batu (Sarawak); Pooti (Indonesia); Selangan batu (Sabah); Aek (Thailand); Pa-yom dong (Thailand); Chan (Thailand); Kedawang (Indonesia); Benuas (Indonesia); Brunas (Indonesia); Agelam (Indonesia); Yakal (Philippines); Balau simantok (Malaysia); Balau kumus (Malaysia); Sengkawan darat (Malaysia); Selangan batu (Indonesia); Damar laut (Malaysia); Balau (Germany); Balau (United Kingdom); Balau (France); Kumus (Malaysia); Balau (United States of America); Ca-chac (Vietnam); Sen (Vietnam); Phchek (Cambodia); Gisok (Philippines); Balau (Sweden); Balau (Italy); Balau (Spain); Thitya (Myanmar); Sal (India); Malayakal (Philippines); Balau (Netherlands)
Shorea utilis King; Shorea barbata Brandis; Shorea alba Ridley; Balanocarpus ovalifolius Ridley
It is a medium-sized to large tree up to 50 m tall, with boles up to 160 cm in diameter, and prominent buttresses up to 4 m high.
Shorea maxwelliana is one of the main balau timber trees, occurring locally in some abundance on low ridges, on well drained soils, up to 700 m of altitude.
Vessels per mm2 6 to 10 (medium). Wood diffuse porous. Vessels solitary and in short radial multiples. Tyloses common. Tangential diameter of vessel lumina 200 micras or more (large). Vestured pits. Vessel-ray pits coarse in marginal rows. Simple perforation pla Apotracheal axial parenchyma diffuse and/or diffuse in aggregates. Axial parenchyma thin vasicentric. Occasionally axial parenchyma aliform. Occasionally axial parenchyma in marginal or in seemingly marginal bands. Axial parenchyma in discontinuous tangential Rays more than 10 per mm (abundant). Rays 1 to 4 seriate. Prismatic crystals in the ray cells. Body ray cells procumbent with one row of upright and/or square marginal cells (Kribs-III). Non-septate fibers. Fibers with simple to minutely bordered pits.
The dry timber has nutmeg odor.
The sapwood is pale green to light gray. The heartwood is yellowish to grayish brown when fresh, becoming light brown to brown after exposure.
It is straight, occasionally interlocked.
Texture is usually fine to medium. The vessels are often blocked with tyloses.
The heartwood is somewhat lustrous.
It is considered as very durable to durable.
It is an impermeable wood, with very low absorption of preservatives.
Ease of Drying: Drying is very slow and difficult to perform; defects are frequent. Drying Defects: Risks of distortions.
UK-G; JP-8; US-T8-B3
It is easy to cut if the saw is stellite tipped.
This wood is reported to have a severe blunting effect on the saw-teeth.
It is easy if special sharp cutters are used, but severe difficulties are reported if interlocked grain is present.
Planing properties are rated as good to slightly difficult.
In green condition, it is easy to bore, but boring of air-dried timber is slightly difficult.
Pre-boring is recommended to avoid splitting.
It has a good behavior in gluing.
This species is reported to take a smooth finish.
EXTERIOR GENERAL, bridges, stakes posts, crossties, HOUSING GENERAL, flooring, CONTAINERS, cooperage, truck bodies, NAVAL CONSTRUCTION, port pillar, port storage