Myroxylon balsamum (L.) Harms
Incienso Colorado (Paraguay); Sandalo (Costa Rica); Bálsamo (Brazil); Bálsamo (Venezuela); Quina Quina (Peru); Bálsamo (Peru); Bálsamo (Ecuador); Quina Quina De Yungos (Bolivia); Bálsamo (Bolivia); Sándalo (Ecuador); Santos Mahogany; Palo De Bálsamo; Nabal; Incienso (Paraguay); Chirraca; Cedro Chino; Cabriziva; Estoraque (Peru); Pino De Calabria; Greybark Pine; Bosnian Pine; Tache; Tolú; Quina Quina (Bolivia); Quina (Argentina); Óleo Vermelho (Brazil); Kina; Kina Morado; Kina Kina; Cabreúva Vermelha (Brazil); Cabreúva (Brazil); Caboré; Bálsamo De Tolú; Balsamito; Bálsamo (Colombia)
Toluifera balsamum L.; Myroxylon balsamum var. punctatum (Klotzsch) Harms; Myrospermum toluiferum (A. Rich.) DC.
This tree is small to medium sized, attaining heights of 15 to 20 m, eventually up to 30 m and diameters of 45 to 90 cm.
Myroxylon balsamum is found in the primary and secondary tropical and subtropical forests of America.
This species extends over a wide area from southern Mexico southward to Argentina.
Wood diffuse porous. Vessels solitary and in short radial multiples. Tangential diameter of vessel lumina 100 to 150 micras (small). Colored deposits in heartwood vessels. Vessels per mm2 10 to 20 (abundant). Simple perforation plates. Vessel-ray pits similar t Paratracheal axial parenchyma scanty and/or vasicentric. Axial parenchyma storied. Occasionally prismatic crystals in non-chambered axial parenchyma cells. Occasionally prismatic crystals in chambered axial parenchyma cells and/or in fibers. Two cells per par Rays more than 10 per mm (abundant). Rays storied. Rays commonly 2 seriate. Prismatic crystals in the ray cells. Body ray cells procumbent with one row of upright and/or square marginal cells (Kribs-III). Fibers with simple to minutely bordered pits.
It has a distinct odor, but no special taste.
The sapwood is pale yellow, clearly differentiated. The heartwood is reddish-brown, darkening to deep red after exposure.
The grain is interlocked.
Texture is medium to fine.
The wood exhibits a medium luster.
It is rated as highly resistant to attack by decay fungi. It has good resistance to termites and dry wood insects.
This species is impermeable, but for most uses it does not require a preservative treatment.
The timber is reported to be moderately difficult to saw because of hardness.
Blunting effect on cutters is reported to be moderate.
All machining operations are rather difficult due to interlocked grain. It responds rather poorly to planing, boring, turning, molding, and mortising operations. For best results, carbide-tipped tools are recommended.
Nailing is difficult, pre-boring is recommended.
Sanding characteristics are rated as satisfactory.
The timber is reported to have excellent polishing characteristics.
It is a very hard wood, response to hand tools is poor.
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