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BISHOP WOOD (Bischofia javanica)

Trade Name

Bishop wood

Scientific Name

Bischofia javanica Blume



Common Names

Ye-padauk; Urum; Uriam; Ulayan; Tuog; Tuir; Tui; Tuel; Tuan; Tual; Tou; Toogen; Toog; Toe; Tingkeum; Thrippu; Thondi; Thiripu; Thirippu; Tayok-the; Taua; Tanarem; Taisoh; Sinong; Singkam; Pun; Pogaungsa; Paniala; Panasan; Oli oli; Oha`a; Oa; Nira; Nili-mara; Needlebark; Nannal; Modagerri vembu; Milachithayam; Manoko; Mandos; Malachithiyani; Malachithiyan; Kywetho; Kundjing; Kot-semla; Korsa; Kola; Koka; Ko; Ki mahoeng; Kerindjing; Kein; Kaurem; Kainjal; Kaen; Joki; Jitang; Irum; Hka-shatawi; Govarnellu; Gobra nairul; Gintoeng; Gerondjing; Dueg; Duag; Digahongon; Dampol; Cholavenga; Bunian; Bolzuru; Boke; Bogaungsa; Boaungza; Bitug; Bishopwood; Bintoengan; Bino; Bhillar; Beefwood; Bangu; Bagna; Ayuni; Aukkyu; Apalang; Akayan; Aidumu; Gadog (Indonesia); Java cedar (Papua New Guinea); Bois de l`eveque (France); Java cedar (United Kingdom); Java cedar (United States of America); Bishop wood; Term (Thailand); Bisshopwood (India); Bisshopwood (Myanmar); Nhoi (Vietnam); Tuai (Philippines); Gintungan (Indonesia); Godog (Indonesia)

Scientific Name Synonyms

Stylodiscus trifoliatus Benn.; Microelus roeperianus Wight & Arn.; Bischofia toui Decne.; Bischofia oblongifolia Decne.; Bischofia leplopoda Müll. Arg.; Bischofia cumingiana Decne.; Andrachne trifoliata Roxb.

Description Of The Tree

Botanical Description

It is a medium-sized large, occasionally large tree up to 35 m tall. The bole is straight or poorly shaped and branchless part usually short but sometimes up to 20 m long, up to 80 cm in diameter. Sometimes the buttresses are steep and up to 3 m high.

Natural Habitat

It is common along streams at low and medium altitudes.

Natural Distribution

It is a widely distributed species extending from India to South China, Indochina and the Pacific islands and Northern Australia.

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Wood Identification

Anatomic Description Of Wood

Tyloses common. Vessels per mm2 less than 6 (rare). Vessel-ray pits reticulate and/or foraminate. Simple perforation plates. Intervessel pits large, 10 micras or more. Occasionally paratracheal axial parenchyma scanty and/or vasicentric. Prismatic crystals in non-chambered axial parenchyma cells. Prismatic crystals in chambered axial parenchyma cells and/or in fibers. 4 to 10 rays per mm (medium). Rays of two distinct sizes. Ray height more than 1 mm. Occasionally sheath cells. Prismatic crystals in radial alignment in procumbent ray cells (chambered cells). Body ray cells procumbent with over 4 rows of upright and/or squar Septate fibers present. Fibers with simple to minutely bordered pits.


Cites Status


General Wood Description


It has no marked taste or odor.


The sapwood is from pink to brick or red-brown. The heartwood is purplish or dark red-brown, darkening with age.


The grain is straight or interlocked.


Texture is reported to be medium to coarse.


It is slightly lustrous.

Natural Durability

It is only moderately durable under cover in tropical conditions, but very durable in temperate zones. It is reported to be durable in fresh water.

Natural durability index (1= Very high durability, 7=Vey low durability)


Resistance To Impregnation

The sapwood is moderately permeable, but the heartwood is impermeable to preservative treatment.

Wood Physical Properties

Basic Density or Specific Gravity (O.D. weight/vol. green) (g/cm³)


Air-dry Density (Weight and volume at 12%MC) (g/cm³)


Total shrinkage Tangential (Saturated to 0%MC) (%)


Total shrinkage Radial (Saturated to 0%MC) (%)


Drying Defects

Ease of Drying: Air seasoning is very slow.

Dimensional stability ratio (Total Tangential Shrinkage %/Total Radial Shrinkage %)


Wood Chemical Properties

Wood Mechanical Properties

Bending Strength (MOR),12%MC (kgf/cm²)


Stiffness (MOE) 12%MC (kgf/cm²)


Compression parallel to fiber 12%MC (kgf/cm²)


Compression perpendicular to fiber 12%MC (kgf/cm²)


Shear strength radial 12%MC (kgf/cm²)


Janka hardness (side) 12%MC (kgf)


Janka hardness (end grain) 12%MC (kgf)




The behavior of this species in sawing is considered to be fair to difficult.

Rotary Veneer Cutting

Good veneer can be produced at a peeling angle of 92 degrees without pretreatment, but the veneer is wavy after drying.

Sliced Veneer

Good veneer can be produced at a peeling angle of 92 degrees without pretreatment, but the veneer is wavy after drying.


Wood processing is reported to be easy.


This species is easy to plane.


This species is easy to mold.




Boring is reported to be easy.


Mortising is reported to be easy.


Nailing is reported as easy.


This species is easy to glue.


Finishing of this species is reportedly easy.


End Uses Summary

HOUSING GENERAL, beams, flooring, FURNITURE AND CABINETS, luxury furniture, PLYWOOD AND VENEER, TURNING, SPORTS, TOOLS, agricultural tools, CONTAINERS, truck bodies, truck flooring, NAVAL CONSTRUCTION, boat deck, OTHER AND MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS, handicrafts, pencil, coffin

General Housing
  • 10 - Silica in Timbers
  • 11 - Prospect: The wood database
  • 14 - Handbook of Hardwoods
Furniture Cabinets
  • 21 - Tropical timbers of the world. Part III-Southeast Asian and Oceanian Species.
Furniture, Luxury
  • 22 - Dry kiln schedules for commercial woods. Temperate and tropical. Section IV-Asian and Oceanian Woods
Panels, Veneers
  • 25 - Directory of Timber Trade Malaysia
  • 30 - Embassy of Honduras in Japan
  • 38 - Annual Review and Assessment of the World Timber Situation 1998-ITTO
  • 42 - Utilización Industrial de Nuevas Especies Forestales en el Perú.
Agricultural Tools
  • 44 - Atlas of Peruvian Woods
Truck Body
  • 53 - Timbers of the New World
Truck Flooring
  • 54 - Bulletin of the Government Forest Experiment Station N.157: Identification of Tropical Woods
  • 55 - Tropical Timber Atlas of Latin America
Boat Decking
  • 59 - Programa Nacional de uso Sostenible de los Bosques e Incremento a las Exportaciones.
Other & Musical Instruments
  • 63 - Madeiras do Brazil II
  • 66 - Maderas latinoamericanas. VII. Caracteristicas anatomicas. propiedades fisicomecanicas, de secado, y tratabilidad de la madera juvenil de Cordia alliodora (Ruiz & Pav. Oken.)
  • 67 - Maderas latinoamericanas. VIII, Calophyllum brasilense, Couratari panamensis, Dendropanax arboreum y Bombacopsis sessilis
  • 78 - Amazonian Timbers for the International Market

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