Bertholletia excelsa Bonpl.
Noz-Do-Brasil (Brazil); Castanheira (Brazil); Castanha-Vermelha (Brazil); Castanha-Sapucaia (Brazil); Castanha-Do-Maranhão (Brazil); Castanha-Do-Brasil (Brazil); Castanha-De-Paca (Brazil); Cassipá (Brazil)
Bertholletia nobilis Miers; Barthollesia excelsa Silva Manso
The trees are reported to be very large, reaching heights of up to 50 m, occasionally up to 60 m, with trunk diameters of 100 to 180 cm. The boles are cylindrical, with commercial lengths of about 25 m.
This species is reported to be widely distributed all over the Amazon region. Bertholletia excelsa is a gregarious species, found in non-inundable areas of terra firme forests. The trade of timber of B. excelsa is restricted in Brazil. Vulnerable(IBAMA,2
In Brazil it is found in the Amazon basin from Goias and Mato Grosso, up to Rondonia and Acre states in the south.
Wood diffuse porous. Vessels solitary and in short radial multiples. Occasionally tangential diameter of vessel lumina 200 micras or more. Tyloses common. Vessels per mm2 less than 6 (rare). Simple perforation plates. Vessel-ray pits similar to intervessel pits Occasionally axial parenchyma apparent with the naked eye. Axial parenchyma in marginal or in seemingly marginal bands. Axial parenchyma in continuous tangential lines (included in reticulate and scalariform). Prismatic crystals in chambered axial parenchyma 4 to 10 rays per mm (medium). Rays 1 to 4 seriate. Fibers with simple to minutely bordered pits.
Odor and taste are indistinct.
The heartwood is pink grayish in color, slightly differentiated from the sapwood which is yellowish gray.
The grain is usually irregular.
The wood is typically medium in texture.
B. excelsa is difficult to treat, with low retention of preservatives.
Drying Defects: Slight checking and warping are reported.
The response of this wood in sawing is fair.
Workability of this timber is considered as good.
Planing of this species is fair.
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