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CELTIS (Celtis philippensis)

Trade Name


Scientific Name

Celtis philippensis Blanco



Common Names

Waiam-a-hasi; Uratan; Urarag; Ulalo; Udalo; Tavasu; Takupi; Solomon Islands celtis; Sessel; Propore; Pingul; Oratan; Orarog; Mougong; Maragok; Mangongkong; Mangong; Mangdong; Malingagok; Malagabuyo; Magabuyo; Lomlomata; Lodono; Lausi; Laelae; Lae lae; Kapahalombiti; Kaju lulu; Kajoe sirih; Iangao; Hard celtis; Hanuma; Ha-adi; Gumaliel; Gotgot; Dofala; Dila-dilaan; Bulagson; Bautakate; Ai salo; Penjalinan (Indonesia); Sentok (Indonesia); Nyelepi (Sabah); Malaikmo (Philippines); Maragaoed (Philippines); Narabagsay (Philippines); Ki endong (Indonesia); Thalai khao (Thailand)

Scientific Name Synonyms

Celtis wightii Planch.; Celtis strychnoides Planch.; Celtis prantlii Priemer ex Engl.; Celtis pacifica Planch.; Celtis mauritiana Planch.; Celtis insularis Rendle; Celtis collinsae Craib

Description Of The Tree

Botanical Description

It can reach heights up to 40 m and 80 cm of diameter. The bole is usually straight and cylindrical. The buttresses are absent or up to 4.5 m high.

Natural Habitat

It is an understorey or main storey tree in primary and secondary forests, growing from the sea level up to 700 m of altitude.

Natural Distribution

It is widespread and common throughout New Guinea and Solomon Islands, and reported from Bismarck Archipelago and Moluccas.

Wood Identification

Anatomic Description Of Wood

Wood diffuse porous. Occasionally tangential diameter of vessel lumina 200 micras or more. Vessels per mm2 5 to 20. Simple perforation plates. Vessel-ray pits similar to intervessel pits in size and shape. Intervessel pits small, 7 micras or less. Occasionally paratracheal axial parenchyma scanty and/or vasicentric. Axial parenchyma aliform. Occasionally axial parenchyma confluent. Occasionally prismatic crystals in non-chambered axial parenchyma cells. 5 to 8 cells per parenchyma strand. Occasionally a Occasionally rays of two distinct sizes. Larger rays more than 4 seriate. Prismatic crystals in the ray cells. Occasionally body ray cells procumbent with over 4 rows of upright and/or square marginal cells (Kribs-I). Body ray cells procumbent with mostly 2 t Fibers with simple to minutely bordered pits.

  • Wood Macro Photo Tangential Plane
  • Wood Micro Photo Of Transversal Section


Cites Status


General Wood Description


The wood has a strong fetid odor when fresh.


The heartwood is usually pale brown to pale yellow-brown, moderately distinct to indistinct from the white or pale sapwood.

COLOR INDEX (1=Black, 7=Light yellow,white)



The grain is usually interlocked, sometimes straight.


The texture is fine to moderately fine, sometimes moderately coarse.

Natural Durability

The wood is readily attacked by fungi and insects when exposed to the weather or in contact with the ground.

Natural durability index (1= Very high durability, 7=Vey low durability)


Internal Growth Stresses

Tension wood may occur and cause twisting and warping.

Resistance To Impregnation

Celtis is reported to be permeable to preservatives.

Wood Physical Properties

Basic Density or Specific Gravity (O.D. weight/vol. green) (g/cm³)


Air-dry Density (Weight and volume at 12%MC) (g/cm³)


Recommended Dry Kiln Schedule

JP-24; US-43-44

Wood Chemical Properties

Wood Mechanical Properties

Bending Strength (MOR),12%MC (kgf/cm²)


Stiffness (MOE) 12%MC (kgf/cm²)


Compression parallel to fiber 12%MC (kgf/cm²)


Compression perpendicular to fiber 12%MC (kgf/cm²)


Shear strength radial 12%MC (kgf/cm²)


Janka hardness (side) 12%MC (kgf)


Janka hardness (end grain) 12%MC (kgf)



Blunting Effect

It is considered to have a moderate blunting effect on the cutting elements.


It is moderately easy to work if it is free of tension wood. Sometimes difficult due to crystalline deposits, which blunt tools readily.


It usually gives a rough surface due to interlocked grain.



Steam Bending

The wood is suitable for bent work.


End Uses Summary

EXTERIOR GENERAL, bridges, crossties, HOUSING GENERAL, boards, flooring, frames, steps, FURNITURE AND CABINETS, PLYWOOD AND VENEER, TURNING, BENDING, tennis rackets, TOOLS, tool handles, PACKING, CONTAINERS, truck bodies, truck flooring, NAVAL CONSTRUCTION, boat deck, port pillar, port storage, OTHER AND MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS, handicrafts, moldings

Exterior General
  • 1 - Tabela de resultados de ensaios fisicos e mecanicos
  • 2 - 25 madeiras da amazonia de valor comercial, caracterizacao, macroscopica, usos comuns e indices qualificativos
  • 8 - Maderas latinoamericas. III, Podocarpus standleyi ,Podocarpus oleifolius, Drims granadensis, Magnolia poasana y Didymopanax pittieri
General Housing
  • 10 - Silica in Timbers
  • 13 - Dry kiln schedules for commercial woods. Temperate and tropical. Section III. Latin American (Mexico, Central, and South America) Woods–Conventional Temperatures
  • 14 - Handbook of Hardwoods
  • 16 - Woods of the World
  • 17 - Tree Conservation Database
Furniture Cabinets
  • 21 - Tropical timbers of the world. Part III-Southeast Asian and Oceanian Species.
Panels, Veneers
  • 25 - Directory of Timber Trade Malaysia
  • 30 - Embassy of Honduras in Japan
  • 35 - Embassy of Myanmar in Japan
Tennis Rackets
  • 37 - Annual Review and Assessment of the World Timber Situation 1998-ITTO
  • 42 - Utilización Industrial de Nuevas Especies Forestales en el Perú.
Tool Handles
  • 43 - Maderas de Bolivia (Características y Usos de 55 Maderas Tropicales)
  • 45 - Recopilación y Análisis de Estudios Tecnológicos de Maderas Peruanas
Truck Body
  • 53 - Timbers of the New World
Truck Flooring
  • 54 - Bulletin of the Government Forest Experiment Station N.157: Identification of Tropical Woods
  • 55 - Tropical Timber Atlas of Latin America
Boat Decking
  • 59 - Programa Nacional de uso Sostenible de los Bosques e Incremento a las Exportaciones.
Port Pillar
  • 61 - Manual de Diseño para Maderas del Grupo Andino
Port Storage
  • 62 - Estudio Tecnológico de Maderas del Perú (Zona Pucallpa) Vol I
  • 66 - Maderas latinoamericanas. VII. Caracteristicas anatomicas. propiedades fisicomecanicas, de secado, y tratabilidad de la madera juvenil de Cordia alliodora (Ruiz & Pav. Oken.)
  • 79 - Padronização da Nomenclatura Comercial Brasileira das Madeiras Tropicais Amazônicas, Sugestão

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