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DYSOX (Dysoxylum excelsum)

Trade Name


Scientific Name

Dysoxylum excelsum Blume



Common Names

Kong ta`sua (Laos); Pingku (Indonesia); Kadangisol (Philippines); Kulig baboi (Philippines); Kulim burong (Malaysia); Ki bawang (Indonesia); Kraminan (Indonesia); Kasai tembaga (Malaysia); Kasip hutan (Malaysia)

Scientific Name Synonyms

Gaurea procerum Wall.; Gaurea gobara Buch.-Ham.; Epicharis procera (Wall.) Pierre; Dysoxylum procerum (Wall.) Hiern.; Dysoxylum gobara (Buch.-Ham.) Merr.

Description Of The Tree

Botanical Description

It can be a fairly large tree, up to 35 m tall, branchless up to 20 m and 80 cm of diameter. Sometimes buttresses 3 to 5 m high are present, the bole is fluted at the base.

Natural Habitat

Dysoxylum is reported in evergreen primary or sometimes in secondary forests, up to 2,000 m of altitude. It prefers well drained soils.

Non Timber Uses

The bark and seeds of some species of Dysox are reportedly poisonous, and have insecticidal properties.

Wood Identification

Anatomic Description Of Wood

Wood diffuse porous. Tangential diameter of vessel lumina 200 micras or more (large). Occasionally vessels with colored deposits. Vessels per mm2 5 to 20. Vessels per mm2 more than 20 (very abundant). Vessels per mm2 less than 6 (rare). Simple perforation plate Occasionally axial parenchyma in marginal or in seemingly marginal bands. Axial parenchyma aliform. Axial parenchyma confluent. Occasionally prismatic crystals in chambered axial parenchyma cells and/or in fibers. 5 to 8 cells per parenchyma strand. Axial pare 4 to 10 rays per mm (medium). Occasionally rays exclusively uniseriate. Occasionally body ray cells procumbent with mostly 2 to 4 rows of upright and/or square marginal cells (Kribs-II). Body ray cells procumbent with one row of upright and/or square margina Septate fibers present. Fibers with simple to minutely bordered pits.

  • Wood Macro Photo Tangential Plane
  • Wood Micro Photo Of Transversal Section


Cites Status


General Wood Description


Sometimes the wood has cedar-like or onion-like odor.


The heartwood is pale reddish-brown or reddish-yellow, generally well or occasionally not distinctly demarcated from the white, yellowish or rather bright yellow or pale brown sapwood.

COLOR INDEX (1=Black, 7=Light yellow,white)



The grain is interlocked or wavy, occasionally straight.


The texture varies from fine to slightly coarse.

Natural Durability

The wood is reported to be non-durable to moderately durable when exposed to the weather or in contact with the ground. However, it is probably only moderately durable under exposed conditions.

Natural durability index (1= Very high durability, 7=Vey low durability)


Resistance To Impregnation

This timber is readily treated.

Wood Physical Properties

Basic Density or Specific Gravity (O.D. weight/vol. green) (g/cm³)


Air-dry Density (Weight and volume at 12%MC) (g/cm³)


Total shrinkage Tangential (Saturated to 0%MC) (%)


Total shrinkage Radial (Saturated to 0%MC) (%)


Drying Defects

Ease of Drying: Quarter-sawn material seasons satisfactory. It is reported that board of 25 mm thick took 30 days to air dry from 60% to 20% moisture content. In dehumidifier it took 12 days. Drying Defects: There is only slight risk of checking, cupping or bowing.

Recommended Dry Kiln Schedule


Dimensional stability ratio (Total Tangential Shrinkage %/Total Radial Shrinkage %)


Wood Chemical Properties

Wood Mechanical Properties


Rotary Veneer Cutting

This species can be used for lamination.

Sliced Veneer

This species can be used for lamination.


The response of this species to machining operations is good to fair.


The wood needs pre-boring for nailing.


End Uses Summary

EXTERIOR GENERAL, poles, stakes posts, HOUSING GENERAL, flooring, frames, panelling, FURNITURE AND CABINETS, PLYWOOD AND VENEER, PACKING, pallets, NAVAL CONSTRUCTION, boats, boat deck, OTHER AND MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS, matches, coffin, moldings

Exterior General
  • 1 - Tabela de resultados de ensaios fisicos e mecanicos
  • 3 - Estudo dendrologico e determinacao das caracteristicas fisicas e mecanicas do genipapo (Genipa americana)
Stake Posts
  • 5 - Propriedades fisicas e mecanicas da madeira e do contraplacado de Pinus elliottii
General Housing
  • 10 - Silica in Timbers
  • 14 - Handbook of Hardwoods
  • 16 - Woods of the World
  • 18 - W3TROPICOS Missouri Botanical Garden
Furniture Cabinets
  • 21 - Tropical timbers of the world. Part III-Southeast Asian and Oceanian Species.
Panels, Veneers
  • 25 - Directory of Timber Trade Malaysia
  • 45 - Recopilación y Análisis de Estudios Tecnológicos de Maderas Peruanas
  • 48 - The strength properties of timbers
  • 55 - Tropical Timber Atlas of Latin America
  • 56 - Manual de Identificación de Especies Forestales de la Subregión Andina.
Boat Decking
  • 59 - Programa Nacional de uso Sostenible de los Bosques e Incremento a las Exportaciones.
  • 71 - Proprietes physiques et mecaniques des bois tropicaux, premier supplement
  • 78 - Amazonian Timbers for the International Market
  • 79 - Padronização da Nomenclatura Comercial Brasileira das Madeiras Tropicais Amazônicas, Sugestão

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