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EUODIA (Melicope bonwickii)

Trade Name


Scientific Name

Melicope bonwickii (F. v.Mueller) T.G. Hartley



Common Names

Abal (Indonesia); Kamal (Philippines); Awal (Indonesia)

Scientific Name Synonyms

Euodia villamilii Merr; Euodia speciosa Rchb. f. & Zoll. Ex Teijsm. & Binn; Euodia bonwickii F. v.Mueller

Description Of The Tree

Botanical Description

Small to medium sized tree, rarely large, up to 40 m tall. The bole is straight or slightly twisted, cylindrical to slightly angular, branchless for up to 15 m and 60 cm of diameter.

Natural Habitat

Melicope trees are found scattered in primary or secondary rain forests, from the lowlands up to 1,600 m of altitude.

Non Timber Uses

Several species of Euodia contain alkaloids, coumarins and essential oils.

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Wood Identification

Anatomic Description Of Wood

Vessels per mm2 5 to 20. Simple perforation plates. Vessel-ray pits similar to intervessel pits in size and shape. Paratracheal axial parenchyma scanty and/or vasicentric. Axial parenchyma winged aliform (uni or bilateral winged). Axial parenchyma confluent. Silica bodies in the ray cells. Homogeneous rays and/or sub-homogeneous rays (all ray cells procumbent). Body ray cells procumbent with one row of upright and/or square marginal cells (Kribs-III). Fibers with distinctly bordered pits.

  • Wood Macro Photo Tangential Plane
  • Wood Micro Photo Of Transversal Section


Cites Status


General Wood Description


It has unpleasant or aromatic odor when fresh.


The heartwood is almost white or pale yellow-white to pale yellow-brown, occasionally with an orange tinge, not clearly differentiated from the sapwood.


The grain is straight or slightly interlocked.


The texture is moderately fine and even.


Timber of this species is moderate in luster.

Natural Durability

The wood is non-durable, prone to decay and insects attack.

Natural durability index (1= Very high durability, 7=Vey low durability)


Resistance To Impregnation

Impregnation of this species is considered as fairly easy.

Wood Physical Properties

Basic Density or Specific Gravity (O.D. weight/vol. green) (g/cm³)


Air-dry Density (Weight and volume at 12%MC) (g/cm³)


Total shrinkage Tangential (Saturated to 0%MC) (%)


Total shrinkage Radial (Saturated to 0%MC) (%)


Drying Defects

Ease of Drying: Air seasoning is reported to be very slow. Boards of 13 mm and 38 mm thick take respectively about 7 months and 12 months to air dry. Drying Defects: The wood is very susceptible to insect attack. During air drying is a moderate amount of cupping, twisting, end-checking and surface checking may occur.

Dimensional stability ratio (Total Tangential Shrinkage %/Total Radial Shrinkage %)


Wood Chemical Properties

Wood Mechanical Properties


Rotary Veneer Cutting

Lamination of this species is possible.

Sliced Veneer

Lamination of this species is possible.


This species is easy to machine.

Response To Hand Tools

It has a good response to hand tools.


End Uses Summary

HOUSING GENERAL, panelling, FURNITURE AND CABINETS, common furniture, cabinets, PLYWOOD AND VENEER, PACKING, OTHER AND MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS, handicrafts, shoes, matches, shingle, moldings

General Housing
  • 10 - Silica in Timbers
  • 18 - W3TROPICOS Missouri Botanical Garden
Furniture Cabinets
  • 21 - Tropical timbers of the world. Part III-Southeast Asian and Oceanian Species.
Furniture, Common
  • 23 - Handbook of Hardwoods
  • 24 - Empire Timbers
Panels, Veneers
  • 25 - Directory of Timber Trade Malaysia
  • 45 - Recopilación y Análisis de Estudios Tecnológicos de Maderas Peruanas
  • 66 - Maderas latinoamericanas. VII. Caracteristicas anatomicas. propiedades fisicomecanicas, de secado, y tratabilidad de la madera juvenil de Cordia alliodora (Ruiz & Pav. Oken.)
  • 70 - Proprietes physiques et mecaniques des bois tropicaux de l`union francaise
  • 71 - Proprietes physiques et mecaniques des bois tropicaux, premier supplement
  • 77 - Amazonian Timbers, Characteristics and Utilization Volume I; Tapajós National Forest
  • 79 - Padronização da Nomenclatura Comercial Brasileira das Madeiras Tropicais Amazônicas, Sugestão

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