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KERUING (Dipterocarpus elongatus)

Trade Name


Scientific Name

Dipterocarpus elongatus Korth



Common Names

Ran (Brunei Darussalam); Kudan (Brunei Darussalam); Keruing kasugoi (Malaysia); Keruing gumbang (Malaysia); Keruing latek (Malaysia); Kruen (Spain); Keruing (Indonesia); Apitong (Philippines); Bagac (Philippines); Basilan (Philippines); Keruing tempudau (Indonesia); Panau (Philippines); Hagakhak (Philippines); Gurjun (India); Keruing (Spain); Kruen (Italy); Keroewing (Netherlands); Indonesian keruing (United Kingdom); Indonesian keruing (United States of America); Indonesian gurjun (United Kingdom); Indonesian gurjun (United States of America); Kruen (France); Keruing (Malaysia); Keruwing (Germany); Yang (Thailand); Eng (Myanmar); In (Myanmar); Kanyin (Myanmar); Dau (Vietnam); Dau (Cambodia); Keruing (France); Keruing (Italy)

Scientific Name Synonyms

Dipterocarpus apterus Foxw.

Description Of The Tree

Botanical Description

It is a large to very large tree of up to 60 m tall. The bole is straight, cylindrical, up to 175 cm in diameter. The buttresses are large, straight, up to 3 m tall, up to 2 m long, 20 cm thick. This species is considered an oleo-resin tree.

Natural Habitat

A large tree of secondary and primary forest and freshwater swamp forest.

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Wood Identification

Anatomic Description Of Wood

Wood diffuse porous. Vessels exclusively solitary (over 90%). Tangential diameter of vessel lumina 200 micras or more (large). Vestured pits. Vessel-ray pits reticulate and/or foraminate. Simple perforation plates. Intervessel pits medium, 7 to 10 micras. Paratracheal axial parenchyma scanty and/or vasicentric. Axial parenchyma aliform. Larger rays more than 4 seriate. Sheath cells. Silica bodies in the ray cells. Body ray cells procumbent with over 4 rows of upright and/or square marginal cells (Kribs-I). Body ray cells procumbent with mostly 2 to 4 rows of upright and/or square marginal ce Fibers with distinctly bordered pits.

  • Wood Macro Photo Radial Plane
  • Wood Micro Photo Of Transversal Section


Cites Status


General Wood Description


It has a distinctive smell of resin.


The sapwood is yellowish to grayish-brown and usually distinctly demarcated from the heartwood, which is grayish-brown to red-brown.

COLOR INDEX (1=Black, 7=Light yellow,white)



The grain is straight, sometimes interlocked.


The texture varies from moderately coarse to coarse but even.

Natural Durability

Most of the species in the keruing group are rated as moderately durable. The resistance against dry wood insects is poor.

Natural durability index (1= Very high durability, 7=Vey low durability)


Silica Content

Silica Content: This timber is reported to have silica. Silica contents over 0.05% may affect wood processing. Silica Value: 0

Wood Physical Properties

Basic Density or Specific Gravity (O.D. weight/vol. green) (g/cm³)


Air-dry Density (Weight and volume at 12%MC) (g/cm³)


Total shrinkage Tangential (Saturated to 0%MC) (%)


Total shrinkage Radial (Saturated to 0%MC) (%)


Drying Defects

Ease of Drying: Air seasoning of Perupok is reported to be good and rapid without serious degrade. Boards of 15 mm thick can be air dried in about 1 month. Drying Defects: Risk of slight checking cupping, splitting and little warping is reported. Kiln Schedules: Kiln drying is satisfactory.

Recommended Dry Kiln Schedule

JP-3; UK-D; US-T3-D2

Dimensional stability ratio (Total Tangential Shrinkage %/Total Radial Shrinkage %)


Wood Chemical Properties

Wood Mechanical Properties

Bending Strength (MOR),12%MC (kgf/cm²)


Stiffness (MOE) 12%MC (kgf/cm²)


Compression parallel to fiber 12%MC (kgf/cm²)


Shear strength radial 12%MC (kgf/cm²)


Janka hardness (side) 12%MC (kgf)


Janka hardness (end grain) 12%MC (kgf)




It is easy to cross cut but slightly difficult to saw. Resin present in wood is reported to clog the saw-teeth.

Rotary Veneer Cutting

Resin patches are usually seen on the surface of the veneer. Preheating is essential for good peeling.

Sliced Veneer

Resin patches are usually seen on the surface of the veneer. Preheating is essential for good peeling.

Blunting Effect

Wood with high silica content quickly blunts saw-teeth.


Planing is reported to be easy.


The response of this species to boring operations is fair.


Nailing properties are poor.


The resin interferes with the gluing properties and the species that are too oily are generally not used.


This species is reported to be easy to finish. Resin exudation, if present, may difficult finishing.


End Uses Summary

EXTERIOR GENERAL, HOUSING GENERAL, beams, joists, flooring, frames, steps, FURNITURE AND CABINETS, PLYWOOD AND VENEER, TOOLS, agricultural tools, PACKING, pallets, CONTAINERS, truck bodies, truck flooring, NAVAL CONSTRUCTION, OTHER AND MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS, handicrafts, paper

Exterior General
  • 1 - Tabela de resultados de ensaios fisicos e mecanicos
General Housing
  • 10 - Silica in Timbers
  • 11 - Prospect: The wood database
  • 12 - Tropical timbers of the world. Part I-Tropical American Species
  • 14 - Handbook of Hardwoods
  • 16 - Woods of the World
  • 17 - Tree Conservation Database
Furniture Cabinets
  • 21 - Tropical timbers of the world. Part III-Southeast Asian and Oceanian Species.
Panels, Veneers
  • 25 - Directory of Timber Trade Malaysia
  • 42 - Utilización Industrial de Nuevas Especies Forestales en el Perú.
Agricultural Tools
  • 44 - Atlas of Peruvian Woods
  • 45 - Recopilación y Análisis de Estudios Tecnológicos de Maderas Peruanas
  • 48 - The strength properties of timbers
Truck Body
  • 53 - Timbers of the New World
Truck Flooring
  • 54 - Bulletin of the Government Forest Experiment Station N.157: Identification of Tropical Woods
  • 55 - Tropical Timber Atlas of Latin America
  • 66 - Maderas latinoamericanas. VII. Caracteristicas anatomicas. propiedades fisicomecanicas, de secado, y tratabilidad de la madera juvenil de Cordia alliodora (Ruiz & Pav. Oken.)
  • 82 - Compilation of Data on the Mechanical Properties of Foreign woods (Part 2) Central and South America.

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