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KERUING (Dipterocarpus lowii)

Trade Name


Scientific Name

Dipterocarpus lowii Hook.f.



Common Names

Kalup puteh (Sabah); Keruing sol (Malaysia); Sindur betul (Indonesia); Keruing batu (Indonesia); Resak butoh biawak (Brunei Darussalam); Keruing sol (Brunei Darussalam); Hagakhak (Philippines); Indonesian keruing (United States of America); Keroewing (Netherlands); Bagac (Philippines); Kruen (Sweden); Basilan (Philippines); Dau (Cambodia); Apitong (Philippines); Kanyin (Myanmar); Panau (Philippines); Yang (Thailand); Kruen (France); Keruing (France); Keruing (Sweden); Gurjun (India); Keruwing (Germany); Indonesian keruing (United Kingdom); Dau (Vietnam); Indonesian gurjun (United States of America); Keruing bunga (Indonesia); Keruing (Indonesia); Kruen (Italy); Keruing (Malaysia); Eng (Myanmar); In (Myanmar); Keruing (Italy); Indonesian gurjun (United Kingdom)

Scientific Name Synonyms

Dipterocarpus undulatus Vesque

Description Of The Tree

Botanical Description

It is a large tree up to 55 m tall. The bole is straight, up to 190 cm in diameter. The buttresses are up to 2.5 m high, spreading. This species is considered an oleo-resin tree.

Natural Habitat

Dipterocarpus lowii grows on well drained, usually sandy soils, in lowland dipterocarp forests, up to 400 m of altitude.

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Wood Identification

Anatomic Description Of Wood

Wood diffuse porous. Vessels exclusively solitary (over 90%). Tangential diameter of vessel lumina 200 micras or more (large). Vestured pits. Vessel-ray pits reticulate and/or foraminate. Simple perforation plates. Intervessel pits medium, 7 to 10 micras. Paratracheal axial parenchyma scanty and/or vasicentric. Axial parenchyma aliform. Larger rays more than 4 seriate. Sheath cells. Silica bodies in the ray cells. Body ray cells procumbent with over 4 rows of upright and/or square marginal cells (Kribs-I). Body ray cells procumbent with mostly 2 to 4 rows of upright and/or square marginal ce Fibers with distinctly bordered pits.

  • Wood Macro Photo Tangential Plane
  • Wood Micro Photo Of Transversal Section


Cites Status


General Wood Description


It has a distinctive smell of resin.


The sapwood is yellowish to grayish-brown and usually distinctly demarcated from the heartwood, which is grayish-brown to red-brown.

COLOR INDEX (1=Black, 7=Light yellow,white)



The grain is straight, sometimes interlocked.


The texture varies from moderately coarse to coarse but even.

Natural Durability

Most of the species in the keruing group are rated as moderately durable. The resistance against dry wood insects is poor.

Natural durability index (1= Very high durability, 7=Vey low durability)


Silica Content

Silica Content: Silica presence is reported. Amounts over 0.05% may affect wood processing. Silica Value: 0

Wood Physical Properties

Basic Density or Specific Gravity (O.D. weight/vol. green) (g/cm³)


Air-dry Density (Weight and volume at 12%MC) (g/cm³)


Total shrinkage Tangential (Saturated to 0%MC) (%)


Total shrinkage Radial (Saturated to 0%MC) (%)


Drying Defects

Ease of Drying: Seasoning is reported as good with little degrade. It takes about 2 months and 3.5 months respectively to air dry 13 mm and 38 mm thick boards. Drying Defects: End-splits may develop.

Recommended Dry Kiln Schedule

UK-D; JP-3; US-T3-D2

Dimensional stability ratio (Total Tangential Shrinkage %/Total Radial Shrinkage %)


Wood Chemical Properties

Wood Mechanical Properties

Bending Strength (MOR),12%MC (kgf/cm²)


Stiffness (MOE) 12%MC (kgf/cm²)


Compression parallel to fiber 12%MC (kgf/cm²)


Compression perpendicular to fiber 12%MC (kgf/cm²)


Shear strength radial 12%MC (kgf/cm²)


Janka hardness (side) 12%MC (kgf)




It is easy to cross cut but slightly difficult to saw. Resin present in wood is reported to clog the saw-teeth.

Rotary Veneer Cutting

Resin patches are usually seen on the surface of the veneer. Preheating is essential for good peeling.

Sliced Veneer

Resin patches are usually seen on the surface of the veneer. Preheating is essential for good peeling.

Blunting Effect

Wood with high silica content quickly blunts saw-teeth.


Planing is reported to be easy.


Boring operations are fair.


This wood is difficult to nail.


The resin interferes with the gluing properties and the species that are too oily are generally not used.


This species is reported to be easy to finish. Resin exudation, if present, may difficult finishing.


End Uses Summary

EXTERIOR GENERAL, bridges, HOUSING GENERAL, flooring, CONTAINERS, truck bodies, truck flooring, NAVAL CONSTRUCTION, boats, port pillar, port storage

Exterior General
  • 1 - Tabela de resultados de ensaios fisicos e mecanicos
  • 2 - 25 madeiras da amazonia de valor comercial, caracterizacao, macroscopica, usos comuns e indices qualificativos
General Housing
  • 10 - Silica in Timbers
  • 14 - Handbook of Hardwoods
Truck Body
  • 53 - Timbers of the New World
Truck Flooring
  • 54 - Bulletin of the Government Forest Experiment Station N.157: Identification of Tropical Woods
  • 55 - Tropical Timber Atlas of Latin America
  • 56 - Manual de Identificación de Especies Forestales de la Subregión Andina.
Port Pillar
  • 61 - Manual de Diseño para Maderas del Grupo Andino
Port Storage
  • 62 - Estudio Tecnológico de Maderas del Perú (Zona Pucallpa) Vol I

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