Parinari costata (Korth.) Blume
Merbatu pipit (Malaysia); Mengkudur (Indonesia); Bugan (Malaysia); Tayas (Sumatra); Tayas (Indonesia); Sekepal kemalau (Malaysia); Sukupal (Indonesia); Mengkudur (Borneo); Sukupal (Sumatra); Bugan (Sabah)
Parinari rubiginosa Ridley; Parinari polyneurum Miq.; Parinari bicolor Merr.
It is a tree up to 60 m tall, 90 cm diameter. The trunk is buttressed up to 2 m.
It is reported in primary or ,occasionally, in secondary evergreen or semi-evergreen forests. This species is often found along rivers and streams, sometimes ascending into montane areas up to 1,400 m of altitude. Not enough information available to apply
Wood diffuse porous. Vessels in diagonal and/or radial pattern. Vessels exclusively solitary (over 90%). Vessels of two distinct diameter classes, wood not ring-porous. Tangential diameter of vessel lumina 200 micras or more (large). Vessels per mm2 5 to 20. Ve Apotracheal axial parenchyma diffuse and/or diffuse in aggregates. Paratracheal axial parenchyma scanty and/or vasicentric. Occasionally siliceous bodies in the axial parenchyma. 5 to 8 cells per parenchyma strand. Over 9 cells per parenchyma strand. Axial par Rays more than 10 per mm (abundant). Ray height more than 1 mm. Occasionally rays exclusively uniseriate. Silica bodies in the ray cells. Occasionally body ray cells procumbent with mostly 2 to 4 rows of upright and/or square marginal cells (Kribs-II). Body ra Fibers very thick walled. Fibers with distinctly bordered pits.
The heartwood is red-brown, sometimes with a yellow tinge and not clearly demarcated from the paler sapwood.
The grain is straight to slightly interlocked.
The texture is moderately coarse.
The wood is only moderately durable when exposed to the weather or in contact with the ground and it is easily attacked by termites.
Growth stresses are reported in this species.
Silica Content: Silica presence is reported. Amounts over 0.05% may affect wood processing. Silica Value: 0
It has a good absorption of preservative substances.
Ease of Drying: It takes 5 months to air dry boards 40 mm thick. Drying Defects: It is subject to warping, particularly in case of back-sawn boards. Distortion and surface checking are also reported, although not severe considering its density.
Wood of this species is difficult to cut because of its silica content.
The wood has a rapid blunting effect due to silica inclusions. Tungsten tipped tools are recommended.
Wood processing is reported to be difficult.
It tends to pick up in planing.
It has a poor response to hand tools.
EXTERIOR GENERAL, stakes posts, crossties, HOUSING GENERAL, beams, parquet, panelling, PACKING, heavy packing, NAVAL CONSTRUCTION, port pillar