Select Language:  


< Back NYIREH (Xylocarpus moluccensis) Print Friendly View

< Back Print Friendly View

NYIREH (Xylocarpus moluccensis)

Trade Name


Scientific Name

Xylocarpus moluccensis (Lam.) M. Roem.



Common Names

Cedar mangrove; Pussur wood; Sangkuyong (Philippines); Piagau (Philippines); Delima wanita (Malaysia); Nyirih batu (Indonesia); Nyireh batu (Malaysia); Nyirih gundik (Indonesia); Niri batu (Indonesia); Tambu-tambu (Philippines); Ta buun dam (Thailand); Nyireh batu (Singapore); Ta ban (Thailand); Pinle-on (Myanmar); Xuong ca (Vietnam); Indian crabwood (India); Kyana (Myanmar); Poshur (India); Dhundul (India); Kyatna (Myanmar)

Scientific Name Synonyms

Xylocarpus mekongensis Pierre; Xylocarpus gangeticus (Prain) C.E. Paarkinson; Xylocarpus australasicus Ridley; Carapa moluccensis Lam.

Description Of The Tree

Botanical Description

It is a small to medium-sized tree up to 20 m tall, and 90 cm in diameter. The bole is straight and cylindrical, branchless for up to 10 m, usually with small buttresses and pneumatophore roots.

Natural Habitat

Xylocarpus moluccensis is common in mangrove swamps, beach and coastal woodlands. It may be locally gregarious.

View More Information

Wood Identification

Anatomic Description Of Wood

Wood diffuse porous. Tangential diameter of vessel lumina 100 micras or less (very small). Occasionally vessels with colored deposits. Vessels per mm2 5 to 20. Occasionally vessels per mm2 more than 20. Vessels per mm2 less than 6 (rare). Simple perforation pla Axial parenchyma in marginal or in seemingly marginal bands. Occasionally apotracheal axial parenchyma diffuse and/or diffuse in aggregates. Paratracheal axial parenchyma scanty and/or vasicentric. Occasionally paratracheal axial parenchyma scanty and/or vas 4 to 10 rays per mm (medium). Occasionally rays and/or axial elements irregularly storied. Rays storied. Larger rays more than 4 seriate. Prismatic crystals in radial alignment in procumbent ray cells (chambered cells). Occasionally body ray cells procumbent w Septate fibers present. Fibers with simple to minutely bordered pits.

  • Wood Macro Photo Tangential Plane
  • Wood Micro Photo Of Transversal Section


Cites Status


General Wood Description


Sometimes it has a faint cedar-like odor.


The heartwood is reddish, darkening to a deep warm brown on exposure, usually sharply demarcated from the buff-colored, pale pink or silver-gray sapwood.

COLOR INDEX (1=Black, 7=Light yellow,white)



The grain is straight or alternating to slightly interlocked.


The wood is mostly fine in texture.

Natural Durability

The wood is moderately durable when exposed to the weather or in contact with the ground. It is somewhat resistant to marine borers attack and to dry-wood termites if protected.

Natural durability index (1= Very high durability, 7=Vey low durability)


Resistance To Impregnation

The heartwood is untreatable.

Wood Physical Properties

Basic Density or Specific Gravity (O.D. weight/vol. green) (g/cm³)


Air-dry Density (Weight and volume at 12%MC) (g/cm³)


Total shrinkage Tangential (Saturated to 0%MC) (%)


Total shrinkage Radial (Saturated to 0%MC) (%)


Drying Defects

Ease of Drying: Drying is rather slow and sometimes difficult to perform. Drying Defects: Risks of checks. Kiln Schedules: Schedule proposed as a reference by comparison with well known species taking into account to the general technological behavior of this species.

Dimensional stability ratio (Total Tangential Shrinkage %/Total Radial Shrinkage %)


Wood Chemical Properties

Wood Mechanical Properties

Bending Strength (MOR),12%MC (kgf/cm²)


Stiffness (MOE) 12%MC (kgf/cm²)


Compression parallel to fiber 12%MC (kgf/cm²)


Shear strength radial 12%MC (kgf/cm²)




It is reported as difficult to saw due to interlocked grain.


Machining operations are rather easy.


It finishes well, taking a high polish.


This species is reported to be easy to polish.


End Uses Summary

EXTERIOR GENERAL, bridges, HOUSING GENERAL, beams, joists, flooring, frames, panelling, FURNITURE AND CABINETS, cabinets, PLYWOOD AND VENEER, Decorative veneer, TOOLS, tool handles, CONTAINERS, truck bodies, truck flooring, NAVAL CONSTRUCTION, port pillar, OTHER AND MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS, handicrafts, moldings

Exterior General
  • 1 - Tabela de resultados de ensaios fisicos e mecanicos
  • 2 - 25 madeiras da amazonia de valor comercial, caracterizacao, macroscopica, usos comuns e indices qualificativos
General Housing
  • 10 - Silica in Timbers
  • 11 - Prospect: The wood database
  • 12 - Tropical timbers of the world. Part I-Tropical American Species
  • 14 - Handbook of Hardwoods
  • 16 - Woods of the World
  • 18 - W3TROPICOS Missouri Botanical Garden
Furniture Cabinets
  • 21 - Tropical timbers of the world. Part III-Southeast Asian and Oceanian Species.
  • 24 - Empire Timbers
Panels, Veneers
  • 25 - Directory of Timber Trade Malaysia
Decorative veneer
  • 28 - Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries & Forest of Fiji
  • 42 - Utilización Industrial de Nuevas Especies Forestales en el Perú.
Tool Handles
  • 43 - Maderas de Bolivia (Características y Usos de 55 Maderas Tropicales)
Truck Body
  • 53 - Timbers of the New World
Truck Flooring
  • 54 - Bulletin of the Government Forest Experiment Station N.157: Identification of Tropical Woods
  • 55 - Tropical Timber Atlas of Latin America
Port Pillar
  • 61 - Manual de Diseño para Maderas del Grupo Andino
  • 66 - Maderas latinoamericanas. VII. Caracteristicas anatomicas. propiedades fisicomecanicas, de secado, y tratabilidad de la madera juvenil de Cordia alliodora (Ruiz & Pav. Oken.)
  • 79 - Padronização da Nomenclatura Comercial Brasileira das Madeiras Tropicais Amazônicas, Sugestão

Please Provide Information To View Producer Information

* Or, continue as guest