ABC - Search Substitutes for globally-traded temperate species - Coming soon. Will be able to search substitutes for:
North America:Acer saccharum Marsh., Alnus rubra Bong, Carya ovata K. Koch, Fraxinus americana L., Juglans nigra L., Liriodendron tulipifera L., Pinus ponderosa Lawson & C. Lawson, Pinus taeda L., Prunus serotina Ehrh., Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco, Quercus rubra L., Quercus alba L., Fraxinus excelsior L., Picea abies (L.) Karst.European Union:Pinus nigra Arnold, Pinus pinaster Aiton, Pinus sylvestris L., Quercus robur L., Fagus sylvatica L.Other:Araucaria angustifolia O. Ktze, Eucalyptus globulus Labill., Pinus radiata D. Don, Callitris glauca R. Br., Eucalyptus marginata Sm., Eucalyptus deglupta Blume.
ABC - Timber Availability. Abundance Data for Natural Forests - Reliable inventory data of standing timber by species for natural tropical forests is scarce. It can vary widely between regions and forest types. When such data is available, this website uses, for comparison purposes, the standing volume of timber per hectare of a species in trees larger than 40 cm. diameter at breast height (d.b.h.). The 40 cm d.b.h. was chosen only as a suitable comparative volume across different species. (In some tropical countries forest regulations still prevent trees under 50 cm d.b.h from being legally harvested).
Low Abundance = Under 2 m3/ha; Medium Abundance = 2-5 m3/ha; High Abundance = Over 5 m3/ha.
ABC - Contributing missing photos or information - Donations from individuals and institutions are greatly appreciated and will be acknowledeged. Evidence of proper species identification and of permission to use the photos and information is essential. Kindly contact the person listed in your user group to receive detailed instructions. Thank you.
ABC of Website - Authors of Species Photos - Many individuals and institutions have contributed their great photos and valuable time to this website. To them go our gratitude and appreciation.
Authors Species photos
ABC - Bending Strength MOR, Technology Keys - "The strength of wood samples in air dry condition (12% MC) is used for sorting and comparing species into the ranges shown below. These ranges or Technology Keys were used by the original database.
The Modulus Of Rupture in bending (MOR) is a rough estimate of the ultimate bending strength of timber based on defect-free samples of 20x20 mm sized sample of the transverse section of a piece of timber. However, in practice the modulus of rupture and other strength properties of a piece of construction timber are influenced by many factors such as wood defects, moisture content, load position and duration, among other. So, this is NOT a design value. It is expressed in kilograms force per square centimeter (kgf/cm2).
Low: Less than 580 (kgf/cm2)
Medium: 581 up to 685
Fairly high: 686 up to 808
High: 809 up to 956
Very high: 957 up to 1160
Extremely high: Over 1161 (kgf/cm2) "
ABC of Website - Janka Hardness, Techology Keys - "The Janka hardness of wood samples in air dry condition (12%M.C.), is used for species searches and comparisons.
Refers to the load required to embed a steel ball half inch in diameter to half its thickness on the side grain or the end grain.
The sorting ranges used by the original database are used. Values are based on results of Janka side grain tests expressed in kgf as follows. (test protocol and machines explained elsewhereHardness / Janka)
Very low: Less than 305 kgf
Medium: 305 to 610
Fairly high: 610 to 915
High: 915 to 1220
Very high: Over 1220"
ABC of WEBSITE - Replacement Search Guide - 1. Ability to do Searches to Replace globally traded temperate forest timber species will be added in due course (see list in "temperate species").
2. Tropical timber species are selected for further analysis as replacement candidates, using the following comparison criteria:
Must be within + or - 20% of Air Dry Density ("Weight") AND Side hardness Janka, AND Moisture Movement (Total Tangential Shrinkage %) of the species. being replaced AND,
Must be within one rank (+ or - ) for both Index of Natural Durability and Index of Color (both are only approximate measures).
ABC OF WEBSITE - Reference Section Tips - 1. Try our central search facility in the REFERENCE SECTION of HOME.
2. The English language version lists all the reference items (¨Resources¨) available in all languages.
3. Most classical reference publications are shown untranslated, in their original language.
4. Our system currently lists each Resource to a single user group. For efficiency use the central search facility. Enter keywords in any language.
5. Many topics of general interest have been linked to the Sustainable Forest Producers user group.
6. To quickly see an updated list of all completed ITTO projects in several key topics, please search for ITTO Projects.
ALL KILN DRYING PROGRAMS - For British programs click: KD_British,
For Grupo Andino programs click: KD_JUNAC,
For USA programs click: KD_USA,
For Japanese programs click: KD_Japan,
For French programs click: KD_French,
For Brazilian programs click: KD_Brazilian1,
For Fiji programs (includes coconut palm) click: KD_Fiji
ABC - All Credits for Website Images and Photos - To view credits for Species photos:
To view credits for Website imagery:
ABC - Authors Species Photos - Their have been many individuals and institutions that have contributed their great photography and time to this site. We express our gratitude and appreciation.
View Species Photo Credits
ABC - Photo Credits - Main Imagery - Many individuals and entities have contributed important photography and time to this site. To all of them we express our deep gratitude and appreciation.
View Main Imagery Photo Credits
ABC - Moisture Movement (Tangential Shrinkage,Total) - "Moisture movement¨ is the popular term used to describe the dimensional change response of a given species for a given change in its moisture content. In this websiteitis represented by Total Tangential Shrinkage, defined as the dimensional change of the tangential face of a piece of wood when it dries from the green or ¨saturated¨ condition (27-30% Moisture Content) to the oven-dry condition (0% MC) . It is expressed as a % of the green dimension. Used in this website as one of the criteria for selecting replacement species. (Not to be confused with Normal shrinkage which is the linearly prorated, smaller shrinkage, measured from the saturated state to the air dry condition of 12% MC.)
Total Tangential shrinkage of 7-11% is Medium
Total Tangential shrinkage greater than 11% is Large.
Total Tangential shrinkage smaller than 7% is considered Small.
ABC - Air Dry Density ("Weight" of wood), Technology keys - Density referred to the ratio of air dry weight of wood to its air dry volume, both measured at 12 % of moisture content. This density in air dry condition, is loosely called sometimes "weight of wood". The five categories of air dry density (with both weight and voume measured at MC12%) of the original database are used as "technology keys" for species searches. They are:
Light = Less than 0.4 g/cm3; Medium-light = From 0.4 g/cm3 up to 0.55 g/cm3; Medium-heavy = From 0.55 g/cm3 up to 0.75 g/cm3; Heavy = Over 0.75 g/cm3 and up to 0.95 g/cm3; Very heavy = Over 0.95 g/cm3.
For converting to English units please search for "Conversion factors".
BUYER TIPS - Recommended Moisture Content for Wood In Use - Simple and useful guide for homeowners and wood workers that explains the moisture content ideal for wood products for indoor and outdoor use in different geographic regions of the USA. Residents of other countries can select the USA Region most similar to their conditions.
This is USDA FPL-Research Note 0226, a classic 1973 publication in English offered here by courtesy of the USDA Forest Products Laboratory.
Download fplrn226.pdf (129kb)
BIOFUELS - Wood Pellets - Wood pellets are a source of a renewable energy produced from a variety of woodwaste products. Learn more through the link below. http://www.biomassenergycentre.org.uk/
BIOFUELS - Charcoal Technologies Review - Review of Technologies for the Production and Use of Charcoal, Kammen Daniel; Lew, Debra 2005, Energy and Resources Group & Goldman School of Public Policy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3050, 19 pp. Bibliography Item Nr. 621 http://www.hedon.info/docs/Kammen-Lew-Charcoal-2005.pdf
CONSTRUCTION - Wood Construction, Wood Building Codes, Training, Mexico - Consejo Nacional de la Madera en La Construcción, COMACO, México
Non Governmental Organization. Promotes the efficient and safe use of structural lumber and engineered wood products in construction in Mexico.
CONSTRUCTION - Wood Design Standards - American Wood Council promotes the proper use of U.S. Southern Pine in construction and has important publications and free on-line courses. http://www.awc.org/standards/nds.php
CONSTRUCCION - Manual de Diseño en Madera, Grupo Andino, JUNAC - Illustrated timber design manual in Spanish, including visual lumber grades and durability rankings for tropical hardwood species from Andean countries.
PADT-REFORT 1984 Manual de Diseño para Maderas del Grupo Andino Junta del Acuerdo de Cartagena, JUNAC, Lima Perú. 591 pp. Escaneado, 29MB. Referencia Bibliográfica. Nro 61. Download manual (29MB)
CONSTRUCTION - Transferencia Tecnológica Madera Vivienda - Estrategias y publicaciones desarrollo de construcción y viviendas con maderas plantadas.
DRYING - Green Wood - Wood before drying, directly after harvesting. It also refers to freshly cut woods which have not undergone any treatment. The moisture content in green wood varies with the species and the season.
DRYING - Weight Stacks of Wood - To reduce warping, weighting on a stack of wood, between drying or stacking time.
DRYING - Moisture Content - The weight of water expressed as a percentage of the oven-dry weight.
DRYING - Fiber Saturation Point (FSP) - The point at which there is no more free water in cell cavity, but the cell walls are still saturated with absorbed water. Approximately occurs at Moisture Content = 28% but varies with species.
DRYING - Sap Stain Defects - Staining in sapwood due to fungi attack.
DRYING - Water Pocket Defects - Spots of high moisture content remaining in a dried piece of wood.
DRYING - Mild Kiln Schedule - Softly/mild accelerated schedule, to prevent a risk of defect occurrence, need long time.
DRYING - Severe Kiln Schedule - Severe time acceleratedschedule, high risk of defect occurrence, need short time.
DRYING - French Kiln Schedules - These are only the lumber dry kiln schedules from French sources which were recomended by the original ITTO Database of 2002. A wider and updated set of schedules are available from Tropix by CIRAD in France.
DRYING - Kiln Schedule - Processing schedule in a dry kiln. Steps of increasing severity in temperature, relative humidity, ventilation cycles and air circulation are applied for a certain timber species and thickness as the load of wood loses its moisture. Step changes of dry bulb (DB) temperature and relative humidity (RH) can be performed manually, at set time intervals or automatically, according to feedback measurements of moisture content in wood samples.
DRYING - O.D. - Oven-Dry
DRYING - Madera Anhidra - Muestra de madera secada en horno ventilado a 101 a 105 °C (215 to 220 °F) hasta llegar a peso constante ó anhidro (ASTM 4442-07). Oven-dry, en inglés.
DRYING - MC 12% - Moisture content of 12% in realtion to the oven-dry basis.
DRYING - Recondition - Midway or at the end of kiln drying, a steaming-technique used to equalize drying conditions throughout a load of wood.
DRYING - Volumetric Shrinkage - It is the total dimensional variation of wood from green condition to oven-dry condition. It is measured on wood or estimated as an addition of the radial and tangential shrinkage (expressed as % of green dimension).
DRYING - Radial Shrinkage - It is the dimensional variation in the radial direction of wood from green condition to oven dry condition (expresed as a % of the green dimension).
DRYING - Equilibrium Moisture Content - Is the moisture content (MC%) which wood from a certain species will tend to equalize at over time for given combination of air temperature and air relative humidity.
DRYING - Kiln Drying - Drying process to reduce the moisture content of wood by using a kiln in which all drying parameters can be controlled.
DRYING - Artificial Drying - Drying process in which drying factors such as temperature, relative humidity and air velocity, are under control.
DRYING - Seasoning - Drying of lumber and logs , taking place in an open air condition or a shed but not in a kiln.
DRYING - Air-drying - Drying in open air sheds where drying factors such as temperature, relative humidity and air velocity cannot be controlled. Depending on the local climate, species, size and stacking, final moisture contents of 8-15% can be attained after several weeks or months.
DRYING - Normal Shrinkage - Dimension loss from saturated or "green" condition to 12% MC as a % of the green dimension.
DRYING - Total Shrinkage - Dimension loss from saturated or "green" condition to 0% MC (oven-dry condition) as a % of the green dimension.
DENSITY - Definition Wood Density - Density is accepted as a valid and reasonable basis for estimating the suitability of timber species for various uses. The density measured for a given piece of wood can vary significantly depending of the moisture content it had when the the weight was measured and when the volume was measured. For professional use, both of these moisture contents must always be explicitly stated together with the wood density value.
DENSITY - Basic Density, Basic Specific Gravity of Wood - Density based on the oven dry weight and the saturated or "green" volume. A theoretical construct, it is the lowest possible density value for a given species and the most accurate basis of comparison between species. Practical for estimating MC% of air seasoned wood samples above or close to the fiber saturation point (27-30% MC) by weighing. Sometimes called "basic specific gravity of wood".
DENSITY - Green - Density based on both the weight and the volume measured in the saturated or "green" condition.
DENSITY - Oven-dry density Definition - Density as the ratio of the oven-dry weight over the oven-dry volume.
DRYING - Contracción Total - Contracción Total es la pérdida de dimensión desde estado saturado o " verde" hasta CH12%, como % de la dimensión verde.
DRYING - CH 12% - Contenido de Humedad de 12% (Como % del peso anhidro)
DRYING - Contenido de Humedad de Equilibrio - Contenido de humedad (CH%) al cual tiende la madera de una especie determinada para una combinación dada de temperatura y de humedad relativa del aire ambiente.
DRYING - Defects - Collapse - Cell wall collapse occurring in some species when drying above fiber saturation point. In some species, collapse results in severe deformation of the affected piece of wood.
DRYING - Wet and Dry Bulb Thermometer - A set of two thermometers used in dry kilns. The bulb of the wet bulb thermometer is wrapped in a wet wicker and indicates a lower temperature than the dry bulb thermometer when its water evaporates faster. A larger drop in the temperature of the wet bulb thermometer indicates a lower relative humidity of the circulating air. The Differential of temperatures between dry bulb and wet bulb (depression), is sometimes used in dry kiln schedules to represent the relative humidity of the air.
DRYING - Twist - A kind of warp after drying.
DRYING - Crook - A kind of warp after drying.
DRYING - Bow - A kind of warp after drying.
DRYING - Defects - Cup - A kind of deformation after drying; most common with wider boards which are flat sawn.
DRYING - Honeycomb - A kind of defect at drying consisting of internal checks or voids.
DRYING - Manual de Secado de Maderas, Grupo Andino - "Manual de Secado de Maderas", Grupo Andino Bajar Documento
GRADES and SIZES - Clasificación Tableros Madera Estructural -
GRADES and SIZES - Clasificación Madera Estructural -
GENERAL - LUS Definition. Lesser Used Species - Lesser Used Species. Tropical natural forests are characterized by their enormous diversity. They have many different species per unit area and relatively small volumes compared to natural temperate forests. Many species can be considered as LUS. Several factors determine this situation, among them are the lack of enough technical and market information. While the term Lesser Known Species (LKS) is now rarely used, several tropical timber species are still lacking basic property information. For example, this website is still missing wood and botanical photos and data for many tropical species.
This database allows the user to search alternative tropical species with properties similar to the popular commercially used timber species. It also shows users where LUS can be sourced from certified forests.
GENERAL - Included Phloem - Inserted bark inside the woody tissue of stem.
GENERAL - Radial Face, Quarter-Sawn Lumber, Vertical grain - When the face of a board intersects annual gowth rings at 90 deg. angle. The shrinkage rate of radial faces is substantially lower than for tangential faces. ¨Quarter sawn lumber¨ or " vertical grain" lumber (as opposed to "flat sawn" lumber) is often sought after for millwork, joinery, stair steps and for species like eucalyptus or oak that are prone to drying defects.
GENERAL - Tangential - Face of board is tangential to annual gowth rings. "Flat-sawn lumber"
GENERAL - Cara Radial - Cara radial de la madera es perpendicular a los anillos de crecimiento anual. Madera muestra veta "cuarteada" o lineas paralelas en sentido longitudinal de la fibra, mas visibles en especies no tropicales.
GENERAL - Cara Tangencial - Cara de la pieza de madera es tangencial a los anillos de crecimiento. Madera con veta "floreada" presenta ojivas en sentido longitudinal de la fibra, mas visibles en especies no tropicales.
GENERAL - Interlocked Grain - A wood grain in which the fibers incline in one direction in a number of annual rings and in a reverse direction in succeeding rings. Causing a distortion in sawn-board. In Japanese market a log which has a interlocked grain is sawn in quarter boards (radial plane boards).
HARDNESS - Brinell Hardness - The load required to embed a steel ball (10 mm in diameter) to 0.32 mm depth, in causing a depression area of 10 mm2. Commonly used in the European Union and for harder materials. Here for side grain at 12% M.C. Expressed as [N/mm²]. Values not convertible to Janka hardness. Learn more through the PDF link below. http://www.kahrs.com/globalassets/us/doc-msds-test/kahrs_brinell_hardness.pdf
HARVESTING - Release of Stress - Tree felling and crosscutting of stems into logs will release longitudinal growth stresses near the cut, so that logs split at the new ends. The end splits become larger during log storage of a day, to extend in severe cases from bark to bark, and at times over the entire length. Among the numerous methods to prevent end splitting, some are worth the effort for expensive logs. When logs are sawn, growth stress release causes the lumber to warp and to end split again. Lumber sawn from bent flitches varies in thickness.
HARVESTING - Relaxation Methods - Steaming or smoking and some mechanical cutting (i.e. girdling) methods are proposed to decreasing growth (residual) stresses in a stem or log, to overcoming severe distortion or splitting after cutting.
Untreated Terminalia sp. log has severe end split.Treatment, befor crosscutting makes a groove around the log, like girdling, and crosscutting results in no end split.
HARVESTING - Log Split - Splits of over 60 cm (2 ft.) along the long axis of a log due to high level of growth stresses.
HARVESTING - Girdling - Cutting a girdle around the stem to kill the tree by interrupting the circulation of water and nutrients. Decreasing the moisture content and residual stresses inside the stem, resulting in the floater log and preventing severe splits during harvesting. Applied 2 years before cutting in teak of Indonesia.
HARVESTING - End Split - End split within 60 cm (2 ft.) or so of a log's end cross section due to high level of growth stresses.
INDUSTRIALIZATION - Chipped Grain, Pick-up Grain, Torn Grain Defects - The release of wood chip or fiber bundle generally during and due to sawing and planning, giving the surface a more or less wooly appearance.
INDUSTRIALIZATION - Wooly Surface - The release of fiber, generally during sawing, giving the surface a more or less wooly appearance.
INDUSTRIALIZATION - Fuzzy Grain - The release of fiber, generally during sawing, giving the surface a more or less wooly appearance.
INDUSTRIALIZATION - Plywood - Veneer - Face veneer for plywood. Outer-most surface veneer of plywood needs a high grade veneer, sometimes decorative veneer produce by a slicer rather than rotary cutting, also called "peeling".
INDUSTRIALIZATION - Defects - Blunting Effect - Defects due to the blade of equipment becoming dull (blunted) by silica and so on. The Kife-edge was observed by S.E.M. until 500 m total cutting use. Shorea spp.(Merapi).
INDUSTRIALIZATION - Plywood - Cores - Core veneer for plywood. Inner layer of multilayers of plywood does not need high grade veneer. Usually produced by rotary cutting, also called "peeling".
INDUSTRIALIZATION - Silver Grain - An attractive figure formed by the conspicuous rays in quarter-sawn wood, which is much paler than the rest of the wood.
IDENTIFICATION - Stone Cells - A sclereid that has become hardened by secondary deposits as in pear.
INDUSTRIALIZATION - Wood Machining - "Wood Maching U.S. Hardwoods, Davis E.M. 1962, USDA- FPL." To access the full report of this classic publication:
Download the PDF
To read on line: http://184.108.40.206/documnts/usda/tb1267.pdf Download the PDF
IDENTIFICATION - Tropical Timbers of the World, USDA-FPL - "Tropical Timbers of the World", Chudnoff, M. 1984, USDA-FPL Handbook 607. Download the PDF
IDENTIFICATION - Species - In biology, a species is one of the basic units of biological classification and a taxonomic rank. A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring.
IDENTIFICATION - ITTO Wood Identification Projects - Get information off of the ITTO main site about wood identification projects.
IDENTIFICATION - Glosario Botanico - Glosario Ilustrado de de Términos de Botánica Forestal. Extractado de: Manual de Identificación de Especies Forestales de la Región Andina, INIA, Perú 1996. ITTO PD 150-91. Full reference in bibliography, Nr 56. Download the PDF (Spanish only)
IDENTIFICATION - Genus - In biology, a genus (plural: genera) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms. In the hierarchy of biological classification, genus comes above species and below family. In binomial nomenclature, the genus name forms the first part of the binomial species name for each species within the genus.
IDENTIFICATION - Filogenia Botánica - La filogenia aplicada a la botánica es la historia del desarrollo evolutivo de las plantas.
IDENTIFICATION - Family - In biological classification, a family (Latin: familia, plural familiae) is a taxonomic rank between order, and genus. A family may be divided into one or more subfamiles, intermediate ranks above the rank of genus.
IDENTIFICATION - Familia - Taxon que reune uno o varios géneros.
IDENTIFICATION - Common Name - Vernacular name, not the scientific or botanical name.
IDENTIFICATION - cf. - "Confere" y significa "confrontar, cotejar", comparar con
IDENTIFICATION - Botanical Taxonomist - Scientist that finds, identifies, describes, classifies, and names plants.
IDENTIFICATION - APG III - Angiosperm Phylogeny Group, or APG, refers to an informal international group of systematic botanists who came together to try to establish a consensus on the taxonomy of flowering plants (angiosperms) that would reflect new knowledge about plant relationships discovered through phylogenetic studies. http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/
MARKETING - ITTO Trends_Production_Trade_Prices_Primary and Secondary Wood Products - Bi annual review of trends in production, trade and prices of primary and secondary wood products offered by ITTO´s main website in collaboration with UNECE, FAO, EUROSTAT.
MARKETING - ITTO_Timber_Trade_Statistics - Production, Consumption and Trade of roundwood and primary wood products reported by ITTO's main website in collaboration with other global entities. Available in English, Spanish, French.
MARKETING - Alternative Species - Alternative available species to major timber species used commercially.
NON-TIMBER PRODUCTS - Rattan - Any of various climbing palms of the genera Calamus, Daemonorops, or Plectomia of tropical Asia or Africa having long, tough, slender stems.The stems of any of these palms are used to make wickerwork, canes, and furniture. http://www.inbar.int/
NON-TIMBER PRODUCTS - Bamboo, Rattan, INBAR - The International Network for Bamboo and Rattan, INBAR, is a multilateral development organization that promotes bamboo and rattan. ITTO has funded INBAR projects over the years. http://www.inbar.int/
PROPERTIES, WOOD - Reaction Wood - Wood with more or less distinctive anatomical characters found typically in parts of leaning or crooked stems and in branches and tending to restore the original position if this has been disturbed. It includes tension wood in dicotyledons and compression wood in conifers. (International Assoc. of Wood Anatomists, 1962 quoted in ¨The biology of reaction wood¨ by Gardiner B. et al., 2014).
PROTECTION OF WOOD - Preservation, Wood - A number of different (chemical) preservatives and processes (also known as timber treatment, lumber treatment or pressure treatment) that can extend the life of wood, timber, woodstructures or engineered wood.
PROPERTIES, WOOD - Heart Rot - Rot at central part of standing tree. Depends on tree species, age and other factors.
PROPERTIES, WOOD - Growth Stresses - Growth stresses develop in each stem and in each branch of trees. They have their origin in growing wood cells, which tend to contract in fibre direction, and to expand transversely against restraining forces of adjoining older wood cells. One-sided longitudinal growth stresses help trees obtain optimum crown and branch orientation, as we know from reaction wood, in which growth stresses are extreme. The stresses, which can be measured in several ways, also prevent mechanical failures of various kinds in the tree's vital sapwood, but they cause compression failures and heart checks in the core of big trees.
PROPERTIES, WOOD - Brittle Heart - The defective core of a log. The cell wall of the wood fiber has minute failures and low density in the center part of standing tree. Depending on timber species it may be caused by big growth-stresses and juvenile wood. There are visible compression failures in wood and minute failures at cell wall (micro scopic scale).
PROTECTION OF WOOD - Blue Stain - A common form of bluish discoloration generally of sapwood caused by various fungi.
PROPERTIES, WOOD - Amount of Stress - The amount of stress in new wood tissue at the periphery of the stem seems to be determined by genetic as well as environmental factors. Trees which receive light from the same direction throughout their life have no incentive to reorient, so that stresses are weak in multi-storeyed stands. By contrast, trees in heavily thinned or heavily pruned stands develop strong growth stresses in order to achieve improved orientation. Girdling and defoliation appear to weaken the stresses, but generally, growth rates and stresses are not related. In standing dead trees and in stored roundwood the stresses diminish as time passes, although the mechanism of stress decrease remains unclear.
RESPONSIBLE CONSUMER - Wood Product Standards - Learn more about in the PDF below. Download the PDF
RESPONSIBLE CONSUMER - Value-added Products - Wood products where their design, final performance and cost competitiveness matter more than the underlying species. Examples include engineered floors, laminated beams, I-beams, veneered furniture, furniture made with substitute species finished to look like mahogany, walnut, oak, etc.
RESPONSIBLE CONSUMER - FSC-Certified Sustainably Managed Forests - Forestry Stewardship Council (FSC). The main independent international body of voluntary certification for sustainably managed natural production forests in the tropics. The link explains in English how FSC works. This website promotes FSC certified forest producers that have elected to participate by locating their forests in the digital distribution map of the lesser used species they offer. https://us.fsc.org/market.196.htm
RESPONSIBLE CONSUMER - Productores Forestales Certificados - Productores forestales que manejan bosques certificados por FSC ó PEFC y que participan en este sitio web. https://us.fsc.org/market.196.htm
RESPONSIBLE CONSUMER - Furniture Standards - Learn more about furniture standards by downloading the PDF below. Download the PDF
RESPONSIBLE CONSUMER - PEFC - Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification Schemes http://www.pefc.org/
RESPONSIBLE CONSUMER - LUS - Lesser Used Species
RESPONSIBLE CONSUMER - Environmental Standards -
RESPONSIBLE CONSUMER - Conservation of Forests - Wise use of the forest and associated natural resources for this and future generations. http://itto.int
RESPONSIBLE CONSUMER - CITES - CITES (the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) is an international agreement between governments. Its aim is to ensure that international trade in specimens of wild animals and plants does not threaten their survival. Entered in force in 1975 and as of December of 2014 had been signed by 180 countries. ITTO actively supports CITES work. http://cites.org/eng/disc/what.php
SILVICULTURE - Varzea - Periodically inundated forest in the Amazon.
SILVICULTURE - Emergent Tree - Tree whose crown reaches distinctly above the forest canopy.
SILVICULTURE - d.b.h - Tree diameter at breast height (1.43 m).
SILVICULTURE - d.a.p - Diámetro de un árbol a la altura del pecho (1.43 m).
SILVICULTURE - Coppice - A small wood which is regularly cut at stated intervals. The new growth arising from the stools.
SILVICULTURE - Canopy Tree - The highest trees, forming the uppermost leaves layer of a forest.
SILVICULTURE - Buttress - The enlargement at the base of trunks of emergent tropical trees. It ranges from a small spur or swelling to masive structures, partly roots, partly stem, reaching as high as 10 m up to the stem, thin and flat to thick; twisted or anastomose.
SILVICULTURE - Aerial Root - Any root that grows above the ground.
SILVICULTURE - Adventitions Root - Roots on stems, it grows in the unusual place.
SILVICULTURE - Manual Arboles de Centroamérica CATIE/OFI - Bajar Manual
VIRTUAL LIBRARY - English Language - Initial entries:
For Publications by ITTO Projects search in Reference Section. Enter keyword: ITTO Projects
Search the USDA Forest Products Laboratory Publications: http://www.fpl.fs.fed.us/search/index.php
WOOD PROPERTIES - Wood Handbook, 2010, USDA FPL - Wood Handbook, USDA-FPL , 2010
FOREST PRODUCTS LABORATORY 2010 Wood Handbook-Wood as an Engineering Material General Technical Report FPL-GTR-190, Madison, Wisconsin, US Dept. of Agriculture, 508 p. (16 MB).
Bibliographic Ref. Nr.449. Download the PDF (16 MB)
WORKABILITY - Bending - Technique to make a curved wood part in chair, tennis rackets and so on, mainly after steaming or cooking a wood. Softened wood is bent using a model frame or "jig".
WORKABILITY - Lumber machining: processing variables and quality - Practical guide on the impact of species, wood density, moisture, knife angles, speeds and other processing parameters on the quality of machined lumber. Based on the machining and related characteristics of United States Hardwoods (which can be compared to tropical timbers using the search functions of this website). Courtesy of USDA-FPL you may download this classical publication in English, "Wood Machining U.S. Hardwoods, Davis E.M. 1962, USDA- FPL. 68 pp. Download the PDF (1.7 MB)